Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Great Scot! Brexit?

It's been three weeks into Brexit and the financial world now think that maybe it was never an issue at all? US S&P is back near all time high, the FTSE 100 bounced back with a vengeance and hit its high for 2016. Even the STI is now close to 3,000. Brexit? Nah. Let's Move On! That's market short-termism for you.

For most people, it was actually more disappointing that in the same week, England was knocked out of the Euro Finals. By Iceland. Ouch! People asked, "What happened?" This was the Great Britain, we were talking about the most powerful empire of the 19th century! First, it took a big retreat on globalization with Brexit, then it lost its prowess in football. To rub it in, even the British Gentleman spirit was lost when Michael Gove, a former Secretary of State for Education backstab his political ally Boris Johnson to announce that he would run for Prime Minister, and not support Johnson instead. It was one of the darkest days for the UK in recent history. May God not just save the Queen but the Empire on which the sun never sets.

English Football

Okay, things really looked bad. This could be it for the UK, literally, now that Scotland might want to seek another referendum for independence since the Scots really wanted to be part of EU. Great Scot! How are we gonna ship enough Johnnie Walkers if we are not part of the EU! If Scotland leaves UK, then what about Ireland? It would mean breakup of the United Kingdom. This further implied the same fate could await the EU and other alliance (ASEAN, NATO etc). This is MAJOR. Globalization has been the big trend of our lives and now the people of UK voted and demanded that they didn't want more. It was a vote that the common man said, "Enough is enough." It could be the beginning of the Great Class Divide, the elite vs non-elite. This is the rebellion against capitalism. It had already started in some ways. ISIS, random bombing and shooting, refugees, Donald Trump, even going back earlier in Singapore: Worker's Party winning Aljunied GRC!

Okay, breathe.

For now, let's drill a little deeper on the financial markets, what are the really big implications for Brexit? Where's the catch and most importantly where's the big money making opportunity? As markets become more and more short term, most market participants had already failed as long term thinkers, most simply prefer to trade. Brexit went from "Not Gonna Happen" to "Oh Shit" and to "Nah, it doesn't matter" in three weeks! It really showed something about the intellectual depth of the markets i.e. really shallow. Brexit has big long term implications that wouldn't have changed in three weeks, if what is described in the previous paragraph unfolds, this could ultimately lead to WW3, or some global anarchy, maybe we might evolve into the human society depicted in the Divergent Series. This is really big deal. Ok, hope everyone got the idea. Here's the three biggest deals today:

1. Currencies
2. Financials and F4
3. UK stocks

Needless to say, currencies saw the most volatility with the British pound or GBP collapsing to its 30 year low. In one fell swoop, the GBP fell from 1.5 against the dollar to 1.3. It was said that we might see parity. That has never happened since the pound and dollar exchange rate was recorded in 1791. The closest it ever got to was GBPUSD of 1.1 in 1985. Against the SGD, it also fell to an all time low of 1.77. Singaporeans are now rushing to change pounds and buy UK properties but alas no money changer would be dumb enough to effect that transaction now and banks are also unwilling to support the purchase of London condominiums. No easy lobang bros!

GBPSGD exchange rate

Meanwhile, the second order impact on currencies was even more significant. As the pound lost its status, the other currencies benefited. Obviously the dollar and Swiss Franc rose. In Asia, the yen strengthening much more than expected, negating the effects of Abenomics causing the Nikkei to plunge. The Chinese government took the opportunity to weaken against all other currencies in order to boost its exports, it was called a stealth devaluation, but this would cause further capital outflow. The Chinese simply couldn't have their cake and eat it. 

The other big impact would be on the global financials. The key cities that controlled the global financial markets were always New York in the States, London in Europe and the three Asian contenders: Hong Kong, Singapore and Tokyo. With Brexit, what does it mean for the financial gateway into Europe that was the UK and the hub that was London? If Brexit meant that UK loses its privileges as a EU country, perhaps a new hub might be needed. There is already talk of a F4 alliance (more on this later). This major stress strained on the global banks. JPM, HSBC and Standard Chartered fell 5-10% immediately but had since recovered. Again, vultures targeted the weakest links, such as the Italian banks and Deutsche Bank, now trading at 0.28x book. Investors are saying 72% of the largest German bank's book is worthless. As we had seen over the last few years, there is an increasingly discerning power amongst investors. Good stuff stays good. There was that 5-10% drop in the solid banks but that was it - the minuscule, small window to buy. In a week, everything good rallied. Junks though collapsed and stay cheap. 

F4 in Taiwan

Then there's F4. Sorry, no, not the Taiwanese boy band. Sorry. This is different. This is another gamechanger. Shortly after Brexit, the Swiss Bankers' Association took the chance of a lifetime and ran with it. They proposed forming an alliance by the same name F4 which comprises of four new financial hubs in Switzerland, UK, Hong Kong and Singapore as a counterweight against new possible emerging hubs in the EU: Paris, Frankfurt, Brussels etc. If this succeeds it would bring about a new force as the Swiss controls a quarter of global asset management business. It was proposed that the F4 alliance would coordinate positions on global financial regulations and create new international standards as well. This could even rival the US and make them conform to global standards rather than letting Uncle Sam always writing his own rules. It's a very interesting development to say the least and our beloved motherland is part of it!

The last point would be on UK stocks. So everyone was expecting UK stocks to be hit badly with Brexit and there might be opportunities to buy on cheap. Alas, the window was just one day - the day of the Brexit announcement. Then the stocks took off and never looked back. As said, investors are becoming very discerning when it comes to premium good stuff. Global powerhouses listed in UK like Unilever, Reckitt, Diageo (yeah Johnnie Walker) and even Royal Dutch Shell share prices jumped as the pound fell. This was because their business was global. While the stocks were denominated in pounds, since the earnings were global, a cheap pound meant that the share price should rally. This is an important point as most investors tend to only think about which currency their stock is denominated in, believing they would earn in that currency. But in reality, it doesn't matter! A rose by any other name will smell as sweet. A good stock denominated in ringgit would simply compound faster. Diageo's share price above showed as much. The stock did nothing for three years and rallied 20% mirroring the fall in the pound.

Diageo's share price

Diageo had been mentioned previously but it might worth reiterating that this might be one of the best stocks to own globally. Diageo is the world's largest spirits company with megabrands such as Johnnie Walker, Smirnoff, Guinness and Bailey amongst others. It has 40% value share in Scotch (whisky from Scotland) and is the world's largest producer of vodka. 40% of its earnings comes from the emerging markets while it continues to enjoy pricing premium in developed world with its key brands, It also has an unparalleled global distribution built over the last 180 years that ensure its products reach every corner of Earth. Pirates robbing East India Company's ships in Singapore were after crates of Johnnie Walker whisky in 1819. 

Diageo's Portfolio

Okay, fast forward to today, Diageo, with 20% of its earnings from Johnnie Walker, has been a cashflow generating machine given its business of selling highly priced beautiful bottles of alcohol to rich men and high end bars in the last few decades. It churns out GBP 2bn in FCF globally (soon to be GBP 2.5bn with the collapse in pounds) and this is expected to grow at a 5-6% clip annually. This means that Diageo's FCF doubles every 11-12 years and it had indeed been the case so far. Its FCF in 1999 was GBP 0.5bn and it grew to GBP 1.3bn in 2006 and now almost doubling to GBP 2.5bn in 2017. Of course the market knew this and bought it up since three years ago. Today, as was three years ago, Diageo trades at high multiples: 22x PE forward in two years, EV/EBITDA of 17x and FCF to market cap at a whopping 26x. It fell around 5% during Brexit to teens PE before rallying 20%. Now the ship had sailed.   

In conclusion, Brexit was a lesson about market's short-termism, the world's populace dismay at globalization and the wealth discrepancy it created, the possible emergence of a new financial order led by F4 (no, no, again it's not the boy band) and the power of great companies with strong business moats. On the last point, it was a reminder that we should simply buy a portfolio of these stocks and sleep soundly, not worrying over the whims and fancies of global markets.

Well, maybe Brexit won't really happen, it would take at least two years just to iron out the exit road map (and ten years to fully exit). Let's hope England do better in the 2018 World Cup and God Save the Queen!

PS: This writer owns Diageo.

Tuesday, June 07, 2016

Teach Less Learn More - Lessons Learnt Part 3

This is the last instalment about Singapore's Teach Less Learn More Education Philosophy, its trials and tribulations and the improvements needed. Links to the earlier parts below:

Part 1
Part 2

We discussed how Singapore's education system should nurture the love for learning and also focus on collaboration not competition. Google and the great companies of the world collaborate to bring about better results. It's not voting out your mates in some reality TV in order to win a million dollars. The real world is about working together to create blue oceans, not battling it out in red oceans.

In this final post, we would like to discuss adaptability and understand the game changing future that is upon us and how we can prepare our kids for it.

The world is changing faster than ever. A hundred years ago, changes from generation to generation was rarely as epic hence fathers could teach their sons very useful life lessons and the next generation benefits. But in today's world, things are moving so fast that whatever we learn becomes obsolete in a few years. What our fathers learnt has no implication in our lives today. We can barely learn anything from our parents when it comes to work and technology.

In fact, whatever we learnt in school just a few years ago is already obsoleted. Considering that our primary schools and secondary schools are using curriculum pretty much improvised from fundamentals half a century ago, we can safely say that almost everything that our kids learnt in school today has no use when they enter the workforce. What could be more important is really teaching them how to learn and how to relearn, on top of nurturing their love for learning and collaboration.

Yes, this is about adaptability. A great concept in a profound religion is the concept of impermanence. Everything is ever-changing and the only constant is constant change. In today's world it has also become constant change faster and faster. To adapt to such an environment, one must learn to be resilient, to accept new norms and reject outdated thinking all the time and faster each time. 

The way humans communicate shed light to how our world is really moving. A hundred years ago, person to person written communication was the snail mail. Some of us might have the privilege to experience this outdated mode of sending letters via snail mail to pen pals or loved ones, then waiting for their replies which could be weeks. Then telegram came along, we could send today's equivalent of SMS to our loved ones at an exorbitant cost of 10 word at $3 via the global telephone network pioneered by Alexander Bell and his successors thereafter. Then we moved to fixed line telephones, which was a break through then. About thirty years ago, phones went mobile and we could also send SMS via our mobile phones, for 10 cents per message.

Remember this?

But when the internet came along, the whole game changed. We had emails replacing snail mail and we wait for hours or days for replies, down from weeks. Then we had the first generation of chats like ICQ, then Skype for video, Messenger and today Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, Wechat and Telegram (again)! We created another whole online world for communicating which for some became even bigger than the real physical world in terms of communication. Everything has changed. We no longer wait for weeks for a reply, we are down to seconds. A minute could be an eternity for some. 

Yet we are learning to solve how many marbles Ravi has in our primary schools (an anecdote from the previous posts).  

Along this evolution of social communication, some inevitably fail to adapt. Some of our friends are not on Facebook, some not using Instagram or Twitter, unable to adapt. Most might not heard of Telegram, the new Whatsapp. To adapt is to keep shedding the familiar for the unknown. It is not easy hence not taught. But for our next generation, it could be imperative. It's adapt or die.

Adaptability also means being able to learn and relearn and to be resilient. Not calling it quits when the going gets tough. These attributes again, are not developed by solving complex math problem sums involving Ravi's marbles or rote memorising. Adaptability might well be about introducing important universal concepts drawn from the intellects of the past philosophers: resilience, tenacity, not taking things for granted.

Another big theme in our lifetimes could be the advent of A.I. or artificial intelligence. Computers are getting smarter by the minute. They can beat the best human players in traditional board games like chess and GO or weiqi, supposedly impossible still for at least another decade. The A.I. community is now targeting games like Warcraft. Pitting A.I. against the best players in a highly complex real time multi-player game. Again it might not be long before we see A.I. beating humans at their own computer games. In fact, it had be theorized that A.I. could go into what is called a singularity - a point of no return.

Since A.I. can learn by teaching themselves, as the weiqi program that Google's AlphaGo invented did, what happens if they keep teaching themselves in milliseconds and their intelligence explodes in an exponential way? This has been hypothesized, and if it comes true, then human as a race could face an eventuality. It could be utopia, where machines do all menial jobs for us, find cures for all our illnesses and we can be left to pursue our real purposes of our lives, which we have to then figure out. What is our real purpose in this universe if we don't have to worry about food, money, health problems?


A.I. - Termination or Salvation?

Or it could be apocalypse, ie. machines wipe us out like what Hollywood depicted. Machines that are able to teach themselves would eventually come to a point where they surpass us in every and any way imaginable. Just as they already did in chess and GO. So why would they need us to be around? These are big questions, worthy of yet more discussion. But to get back to the education issue. The key question is:

Why are we still trying to figure out how many marbles Ravi has in a way-too-confusing math puzzle?

Computers can do all the math that needs to be done. Yes it is true that we need to learn the basics and the fundamentals, but nothing beyond what is more than necessary, definitely not solving for marbles via convoluted English sentences designed to confuse nine year olds in a math problem that requires algebra but yet algebra cannot be used as a solution. The future is not about hard math nor hard science, not about rote learning, memorizing, concepts way too advanced for pre-teen kids i.e. all the things the Singapore's education is focusing on.

Ironically as computers take over more and more routine calculations, jobs that are immune to this mega A.I. threat are the ones that Singapore gave the least emphasis on, like hairdressers, barbers, chefs, masseuse, chiropractors, therapists, nail artists, trainers, pastors, gurus perhaps even, here's the kicker, school teachers. In short, jobs that require more human touch where robots find it hard to make the emotional connection. 

Ultimately it might be teaching our kids what it means to be human. To be compassionate towards other, to be able to empathize, to use the best soft social skills to help others. These are the important lessons that might differentiate the next generation and give them the edge over robots. Singapore's education has skewed towards forging the alpha male or female, to compete and beat everyone in some rule based animal war. The world is changing. It's not hardcore competition nor grades and results. Education should be about:

1. Collaboration
2. Resilience and adaptability
3. Learn to relearn
4. Empathy and the human touch

It is not too late to focus on these. Teach Less Learn More doesn't have to become another acronym. Let's hope we move faster towards this new direction, more and less alluded to by the baby steps initiated by Mr Heng Swee Keat, our former education minister.

PS: Very good to know that he is recovering from stroke! Let's hope he get well really soon!

Monday, May 23, 2016

Teach Less Learn More - Lessons Learnt Part 2


This is a follow-up post on Teach Less Learn More - Part 1.

Teach Less Learn More (TLLM) was touted as the frontier philosophy in Singapore's education system to make learning holistic, bringing learning from inside the classroom to hands-on experiences, learning by discovery and less rote memorizing. Unfortunately, the implementation left much to be desired. Today, after years of TLLM, we are still stuck in an epic education war, akin to the popular Animal Kaiser game, where no animals nor their masters actually win.

Perhaps we have to go back to the genesis of Singapore's education system to understand a bit more. Singapore's national education system started in the late 60s and early 70s. Back then, the late Dr Goh Keng Swee, Singapore's chief economic architect needed to solve urgent problems: illiteracy, lack of core math and science skills and the need to increase in productivity and efficiency of our workers working for Multinational corporations or MNCs setting up shop in our little red dot. So he created an education system to tackle these issues, focusing on the most efficient way to produce engineers and workers.

Dr Goh Keng Swee

Dr Goh Keng Swee was a super remarkable man. Yes, super remarkable. We owe Singapore's success as much to him as our late founding father Mr Lee Kuan Yew himself. (Links to these posts attached to their names in the previous sentences.) This website has posts dedicated to our two most important Titans. The education system they created fifty years ago was best suited to solve the issues then. We focused on rote learning, skewed the importance of math and science and we made sure we produce engineers by the truckloads at the end of it. It worked perfectly. 

Alas, after half a century, we failed to reform the system for today's world. Today's issues are, by and large, created by still following an outdated model laid down by our founding fathers. We had some nominal education ministers, whom didn't restructure for modern times when they were in power. We introduced school rankings and a completely berserk implementation of TLLM. We crammed difficult concepts into our young minds thinking it's improvement. 

Yeah, Laplace Transformation at PSLE, anyone? Or perhaps psycho-analysis of Lolita at Primary 5?

Then we had Mr Heng Swee Keat who did a lot of wonderful things but he left the Ministry of Education way too early and now it's really unfortunate that he had a stroke. Our hearts to Mr Heng and his family, hope he can come back soon! 

For all the good things that Mr Heng has done, we need some strong follow-ups. In particular, here are three points worth discussing:

1. Love for Learning
2. Collaboration not Competition
3. Adaptability: Learn to Relearn

The tragedy of all the mis-steps in education over the years was that it killed the students' love for learning. By cramming more and more difficult concepts into young brains when they are not ready simply turned them off. Imagine throwing the baby into the deep end of the pool and then expecting the he becoming next Ang Peng Siong in eighteen years. That seemed to be the way our education system wanted to work.

Stop cramming difficult concepts into our young minds and start nurturing the students' love for learning. The world has changed. We do not need to churn out engineers and secretaries as fast as possible. We need multi-dimensional thinking, adaptability and teamwork. It is time our schools start to teach more of these.

It has been said so many times that it's like super cliche. But we have to say it here again. Learning is a life long process. One can never stop learning. It's the truth. Our education system has made learning so tough, it's not funny. If we kill the love for learning in our next generation, then how can they continue this life long process? 

It is not too late to revamp the system to one based on nurturing our students' love for learning. We should move away from tests, cramming difficult concepts, rote learning to make education really beneficial. Learning should be fun, entertaining, relevant, practical even for the daily lives of young students. It should also be impactful and inspiring. There is really not much relevance in solving for how many marble Ravi actually has, knowing that he has 245 more then Siti and John combined and John has yet another 69 marbles more than Siti and all of them has 941 marbles together. Whatever! How does this help a nine year old in his daily life?

The only reason why primary school students derive joy in solving as many as these problem sums is to be able to beat their classmates by solving more sums than them. This is a very sad revelation. It creates another big problem. It foster excessive competition. We are not saying competition is not good. Competition is obviously necessary. It is dictated by nature: survival of the fittest. But excessive competition which is what Singapore is all about has lasting damage. The real world is not about individualistic competition except in Olympic games. 

In most work environment, we work as a team. There is competition but that is based on company vs company like Google vs Apple, or even consortiums vs consortiums like European banks vs US banks. It is rarely about individual competition or even competition within the company. Companies that encourage the culture of intra-company competition usually fail. Within the team, or within the company, it is about collaboration, not about competition. Yet, the Singapore education has evolved into one where it is all about becoming #1. Or being amongst the top. Only the top quartile or decile wins. Beating the next guy to be one up. This is a loser's mentality.

More often than not, Singaporeans have the mentality that there can only be winners and losers. If you lose, that means I win. To go up, I must step on others' heads. I cannot lose even if I am giving money away. Must check whether the auntie selling tissue really lives in one room flat. This loser's mentality is very detrimental and most work environment collapses when such mentality dominates the culture. These losers think that the compensation pie is fixed. If I get a smaller slice means someone is getting a bigger slice. So they go all out the grab the slices. They are willing to backstab, hit below the belt, go under the table and do all sorts. This is loser's mentality at its worst.

It is not about competing who's winning and who's losing. It's collaboration.

In the winning culture, the winners know that the pie is not fixed. It is as big as they want to make it because the world is their oyster. They collaborate in the most ingenious ways to grow the pie. This is how the Facebooks and the Googles of the world is taking over the planet. Our education is not contributing to create more of these world dominating companies, nor educating the workforce to be able to adapt in these winning culture. 


Collaboration

The real world is about collaboration, not competition. There is no #1 spot, nor cut off scores, nor elbowing to be amongst the top. It is teamwork, thinking win-win, forging new routes to access the blue ocean and adapting along the way. 

For those in the workforce long enough would know there is really limitations in what one person could do. Humans work together since prehistoric times, to bring down mammoths, to build pyramids and today to create new markets. The pie is never fixed. Google, by putting the best brains in the world into one firm is trying to solve some of the world's biggest problems. Like creating self-driving cars so as to free us to do a lot more productive work while commuting and at the same time reducing accidents and traffic jams. This came about with collaboration, not competing who gets more fat bonuses from Google's advertising revenue via its search engine.

Google and the rest of the tech firms are at the forefront of game changing innovations. Alas, our schools are ill prepared for what's coming. Next post, we talk about adaptability: how to learn to relearn and the best skills to impart to our next generation!

All three parts are out!

Sunday, May 01, 2016

Teach Less Learn More - Lessons Learnt Part 1

Despite this being an investment blog, education posts written in 2011 and there after had delivered one of the highest pageviews as a result of our obsessively competitive education system and the interest it generated. There had been various changes since then: it was announced that PSLE would move away from the three digit scoring system, schools would be more holistic building on the TLLM (a.k.a teach less learn more philosophy) implemented almost a decade ago amongst other changes. Hence it might be a good time to give an update here.

Let's recap a few topics:

1. Parents vs System
2. Teachers
3. Philosophy (new topic)

Parents vs System: this topic had been debated to the death, yes blame the kiasu parents. But the solution is not asking all the parents to stop being kiasu. That cannot be the case and as parents, the solution is also not about stopping tuition for our kids, as to try to stop condoning the system and to try to cut the financial umbilical cord to tuition centres. This seemed to be some parent's mentality. If I do my part to not support the tuition industry, then the system has to change. Sorry it doesn't work that way. Tell the ladies: try not wearing high heels to stop condoning heels which are bad for ladies' feet, bad for stability and bad for the wallet. It doesn't work. Not letting your kids go tuition when he needs it in this day and age just makes it a handicap, akin to purposely tying one arm behind in a boxing match.

Just to share another interesting revelation here. The education system in Singapore, in effect, is an epic battle between parents and their resourcefulness, it is not about the students, who's really smart and who's really good at math or science, or reciting poetry. As our young kids are made to learn more and more difficult concepts at younger and younger age, the key determining factor becomes how much resources the parents can put in the ensure their kids win. Unfortunately, it is much less about the kids' true capabilities.

Just take primary school math as an example: today an 8 year old Singaporean school kid is made to learn very difficult math concepts using fractions and algebra when their minds are not developed for these concepts. Just to elaborate, we have math problems requiring algebra to solve but the system refuses to introduce 'x's and 'y's and instead uses bars and pies to try to mask the difficulty. Needless to say, there is a very high degree of idiocy in giving such problems in the first place. I am sure we will get to 'x's and 'y's, perhaps differential equations and Laplace transformation for Primary 3 in a few years at the rate we keep introduce tough topics. 

Good luck parents of the future! Hence the solution to make these poor children "able to do" these problems involve rote learning and memorizing steps without them truly understand the concepts. This requires major investments into either tuition or parent's involvement (time and effort) or both,  to make sure the kids keep regurgitate the rote steps to solve these math problems.

This is so silly, agreed?

This is like a video game where the parents throw money, time, resources to train their kid i.e. the character so that they can go fight other computer characters and prove their worth. Of course, the kids at this age simply move like the computer characters, fully controlled by their parents. Some really good and smart kids soon realize the game and become motivated to fight on their own, but this is like A.I. achieving consciousness, ie the computer begins to think and move by itself and understands its own existence. Alas we are not there yet, most of our kids are simply moving from command to command, having not awakened. Hence we parents end up just training ourselves to be the gamemasters for our kids. This is the result of our f**ked up system.

Just to give the analogy a bit more meat, for some parents, the following game probably rings a bell. Animal Kaiser is a popular arcade video game where the player collects tonnes of cards in order to beat the opponent. These cards are of grave importance, some cards give the animal special powers, or even divine help, which is crucial during battles. Here, in the analogy, the parent is obviously the player, the kid is the animal character in the game that is going to fight all the other animals. And the tonnes of cards, which requires money, time and effort to collect represents the resources that parents pour into their kids to ensure they win this animalistic epic battle. 

Animal Kaiser & Our Education System

So yes, in Singapore we are all stuck in this big Animal Kaiser education war. Our kids are all animals, training hard, controlled by their gamemasters (a.k.a parents) in this meaningless fight. Does it help them when they go to real world? Does the special powers exist elsewhere outside the game? What are we trying to achieve here?

Things really have to change.

For things to change, it has to be changes made to the system. Change cannot be asking the parents to stop what they are doing. Just like we cannot ask all ladies to stop wearing heels. We must change the system. Yes things are finally moving but unfortunately the changes are moving too slowly. We saw the PSLE changes and what not, which might help, but perhaps most importantly, we have to upgrade our teachers.

Teachers are the most important players in the system.

In the previous posts we discussed that teachers used to be quite well paid some 20 to 30 years ago. I remember my teachers when I was a student were relatively well to do. During those days, their vocation was a profession, they were respected members of the society. Hence they also had the luxury to buy good properties during those days and benefited well from Singapore's property rise over the years.

Alas, today's school teachers are not having such good fortunes. Public school teaching has become a job that is not well paid, very taxing and yet thankless. Parents are ruthless, demanding and oblivious to the consequences of their actions when they condone their kids' wrongdoings in school. Teachers are unable to tackle unreasonable parents given the change in their social status. This is a sad problem.

It is said that the crux of a successful education system ultimately depends on the quality of the teachers. We have destroyed this. We turned teachers into commodities and hence are now suffering the consequences. Is it a wonder now that we have to resort to a billion dollar professional tuition industry to educate our kids?

For things to change, we need to attract talent back to the teaching profession. A big part of the answer lies in raising the salaries of teachers. Ironically, in Singapore, money talks loud and we have to pour money to solve this problem which created the issue of having parents to pour money in the first place. The answer is as follows:

If we doubled or tripled the salaries of teachers, subsequently tightening the requirements such that only the best graduates can be teachers, automatically, the society would recognize this to be a noble job, giving it the same recognition in due time. However this is also easier said than done, most countries had not succeeded except some Nordic countries where they dictated that teachers needed to be PhDs and are paid really well. Subsequently, they raise the education standards, really making sure no child is left behind.

The Nordic education system which extends to early childhood education is said to be the best in the world.

Of course, the ability to pour money to solve the problem ultimately depends on the government's coffers. If the government has no money, then how can they double or triple the salaries of teachers, who usually represent a huge number in the workforce? But Singapore government has money. We can definitely pull this off if we wanted to.

Next, we talk about our system's philosophy.

Meanwhile a happy Labour Day to all!

All three parts are out!

Friday, April 01, 2016

Singtel bought out 8% for S$200m

Dear readers, it is a pleasure to make a splendid announcement today. Singtel has bought over this site for S$200m and all readers whom liked us on Facebook will get an equal share of the profits i.e. around SGD 500,000 per person. Woohoo!

Just kidding. Today is 1st of April after all.

Today we would like to share insights into some of the stocks that were discussed previously here. One of which was Colgate, the blockbuster toothpaste maker that dictate how Singaporeans brush our teeth. (Darlie is also owned by Colgate). It was reported that Colgate sales surged today as consumers found a new use that exhausts one tube in one hour.

Don't to this to your kids.

Another stock that caught the attention of readers was Herbalife. The firm that tricked users to buy tonnes of nutritional drinks to help lose weight. Alas, it didn't really work for most people nevertheless they continued to buy, deluding themselves that they will slim down someday. But when the nutrition was accidentally scattered on desktop PC keyboards, a strange phenomenon occurred.

Herbalife nutrition on keyboards

Herbalife stock spiked from $40 to $60. Again, please don't ever play this kind of jokes on colleagues on April's Fool. This is bad karma.

Okay, let's be serious. This is after all an investment blog where readers come to learn something. Today we discuss this issue of mind capacity. Investing is about having mind capacity. In this modern world, in today's time, we have to juggle much more than anyone in the history of humankind. We have to maintain jobs, health, family, friends and community and finally know more about investing and finance. We are parents, workers, subordinates, superiors, friends, brothers and sisters, sons and daughters as well as volunteers at the same time. There is so much to do yet so little time. Investing and finance usually comes as an after-thought. There is simply no time to manage portfolio, grow the nest egg and all the gimmickry talk about going for financial freedom and what not.

Or is it? Do we really have no time for anything?

The answer is not really. If we look hard into the details, like what we do when we analyse stocks. What we lack is mind capacity. Most of the "work" today does not need physical labour. We have it toughest when we are in the gym, probably. Most of the time, we operate in a sedentary mode. We write emails, make phonecalls, go for meetings. All these does not require physical effort. It requires mental effort. Our brains are wired to try not to think too much. We space out easily after some real mental work. In fact usually during real work and really important meetings. Most people cannot focus and concentrate for 30 minutes. We crave distractions. Actually some surveys showed that most office workers spend 30-40% of their time surfing the net and doing really non-work related stuff. Our minds simply lack the capacity to function a full day and carry out all the tasks that is required.

Think about it, most tasks usually do not take more than 1-2 hours. Be it writing an email to our CEO or Chairman or presenting to a group of 100 people. But our minds make it so dreadful that we can't even sit down properly to draft the email or the powerpoint. It's our limited mind capacity. For most people, accomplishing 2-3 real tasks per day seemed like the max. Some good ones can do 4-5. But in reality, shouldn't it be 10 or even 18 since we have 10 working hours per day and 18 waking hours per day?

Our capacity can definitely be increased. The question is how.

In the world of finance, this has been recognized for some time and there has been various methods mentioned to help people cope. We shall discuss three today.

1. Beginning the day with good intentions
2. Reducing distractions
3. Yoga and meditation

The start of the day is actually very important but the modern society has seemingly moved away. Singapore has a culture of starting later following Hong Kong and Tokyo. Most young people sleep to the last minute possible reaching the office just in time before 8 am or 9 am depending on when the firm starts. Parents are bounded by the primary school bell ringing at 7:30 am. But what's really productive could be starting way early like 5:30 am, have a good wake up routine that sets the tone for the day. Be it an early morning run and then spending a few minutes thinking through the tasks of the day and setting the best intentions to accomplish them. As the day flows, the mind capacity will diminish, hence it is important to work on the hardest stuff early on. The end of the day will be for winding down with light reading, playing with kids and so on.

Waking up at 5:30 am? Yes start the day early!

As such, investing and finance might need to come early in the day, provided it's an off day and work is set aside. If not, then it has to come during the weekend mornings. Do make it a habit to think through investing and personal finance maybe once a fortnight or at least once a month. Slowly building our knowledge over time. Let's hope to see traffic bump up on this site on Sunday mornings!

On reducing distractions, this has be taught for some time. It is about cutting ourselves off emails, phones, chats, Facebook when real work needs to be done. These are powerful distractions and we can hardly resist them in this day and age. We reach for the phones during meals, walking, driving, and needless to say during meetings when it gets bored. This is our cravings in control, not us. So do away with all these. Stipulate time for checking emails and whatsapp or Facebook. Do the real work when it is required.

Yoga and meditation relates to the first point. Some people put this into their morning routine and it works well for them. It might be worth a try. Both yoga and meditation are the modernized versions of very traditional Buddhism practices to calm the mind and free it up for more capacity. Our mind capacity is like an engine, it needs a good warm up daily. It is also akin to rebooting the computer when it is running out of memory. Hence lunchtime yoga is also very popular. There is also a growing trend for other religions to follow meditation given its benefits e.g. the meditation movement in Christianity. Also, praying is actually very similar to meditation as it focuses the mind on doing one very important task - connecting to the Ultimate Being. This is essentially the same as calming down the monkey mind.

Our monkey minds cannot stop jumping. We are constantly thinking anything and everything. We think about the past, the future, the next task, the last argument, the meal tomorrow but rarely about what is happening now. This is our nature. In order to increase our mind capacity, we have to tame it first. With every successful reset, be it a yoga session, or praying or meditation, the capacity increases a little. Hopefully over time, we can do ten tasks a day, one of which is thinking strategically about our investment portfolio.

Happy April's Fool!

PS: For those who haven't figured out, sorry Singtel is not buying this site YET. 


Wednesday, March 23, 2016

Overseas Education Ltd - Part 2

This is a continuation from the previous post.

A quick recap: Overseas Education (OEL) operates one of the largest international schools in Singapore and was listed on SGX in 2013. The stock has since collapsed below its IPO price due to the three issues discussed previously.

1. It move from Orchard to Pasir Ris, a less prestigious location and lost 20% of its enrolment.

2. Competition has increased with now over 70 international schools in Singapore.

3. The global economic woes hit Singapore hard with lots of expats losing jobs and going home.

OFS senior year students

As alluded to in the previous post, these are likely short term issues that would be resolved in a few years. Yes, value investing is a game measured in years. While these issues could persist for say 18 months, it is likely to normalize over years. So for readers looking to play monthly or quarterly games, well, then, this post is not really suitable. Although these same readers would probably not mind ogling at picture of the senior year students provided here. So read on!

Just joking, the above is a pic taken from The Princess Diaries starring Anne Hathaway when she was 18, fifteen years ago. Today, she is more beautiful as Catwoman (shown below) but alas OFS students are even more beautifulier. This hopefully inspires some readers to go kick the tires by doing actual visits to Pasir Ris :) Anyways, back to long term thinking, here's the thing, if we look out in years, not months, enrolment should have bottomed. OFS has managed to grow enrolment steadily for the last 20 odd years. It is likely to keep growing if we are willing to look out a few years. On average, it has experienced net gain of 150-200 students per year over its long history. So hypothetically it should get back to pre-move enrolment of 3,600 in just three or four years.

Anne Hathaway today, looking more beautifulier

As for competition, while there are c.70 schools in Singapore, the top few schools command high market share with their capacity and brand name. These are the numbers: there are c.40,000 students but the top five schools accounts for c.50% of market share. This means that the remaining 65 schools are not actually competitors as they can hold only a few hundred students each. Simply put, they are barely a tenth or a fifth the size of OFS. In fact quite a few of these schools are struggling to survive. If they do close down, OFS stands to benefit from their transferring students.

The world economy has collapsed in 2015 in the aftermath of China's slowdown, the bursting of the commodity super cycle and the bleak recovery in US and Europe. Global expats are moving back to their home countries and Singapore had its fair share of such woes. Despite this, it was surprise to see that the number of employment pass holders actually jumped from 175,000 in 2013 to 188,000 in 2015, a nice 7% increase over two years. This points to Singapore's continued attractiveness as a global hub for expats to come and work. As long as Singapore remains relevant, the number international students will grow and OFS enrolment should grow over time even though current enrolment is still weak.

Next we move to the financials.

As part of its listing requirement, OEL has produced detailed financial statements since 2010. Again, not to be confused, Overseas Family School or OFS is the name of the school and Overseas Education Limited or OEL is the listed entity. We now have five years of detailed financial statements. Analysis of its profit and loss, balance sheet and cashflow is quite straightforward, given the simplicity of the business model. Here's the cheatsheet:

OEL's Cheatsheet

As usual, this cheatsheet plugs out some of the most important no.s from the three statements and put them in a nice format for easy reference. These are numbers not from any single year but a mixture of estimates and actual figures for better analysis. For example: Sales of SGD 100m is an estimate of what OEL can earn in the next 1-2 years while current year sales is only about SGD 94m. Cash and debt are rounded to the nearest 10m based on last reported numbers.

Numbers in blue are derived from other numbers. We can see that the firm has incredible free cashflow or FCF yield (14.6%), Operating margins (24%) and so-so ROE (11%) but likely to increase as its net income normalizes in the next few years. The P&L is simply revenue minus costs, the largest being labour cost which is 58% of sales. The balance sheet has quite a bit of debt (SGD 180m) as a result of the past borrowings to build the new campus but that should decline over time. Free cashflow turned negative as it poured money into building the new campus but that should also normalize and the firm would likely hit 20-25m FCF per year as it did before it moved from Orchard to Pasir Ris.

As part of the drilling in this post, we look closely at these three numbers described above in detail for this cheatsheet, namely:

1. Labour Cost
2. Debt to Equity
3. Free cashflow and dividend

OEL employs international school teachers globally and it pays to get quality. As such, labour cost ie teachers' salaries is the highest cost component and would likely continue to be so. The school has established itself as the employer of choice for the global pool of international school teachers. These teachers usually sign three year contracts and depending on the student enrolment trend of the school, some would not be renewed. Conversely, the school also has a list of potential new hires for it to recruit rapidly when enrolment picks up and it needs more educators. While labour cost by and large will keep increasing over time with inflation, the school can offset this by increasing tuition fees. The school currently keeps slightly more teachers that needed given that enrolment just collapsed but that should pick up as discussed previously. Over the next few years, we can expect labour cost as a percentage of sales to drop closer to 50%. In short the firm has some flexibility in managing labour cost and offsetting it.

Next, we discuss the conversion of its debt enterprise value to equity enterprise value. OEL raised its debt significantly in order to build its new campus, resulting in the current situation of SGD 120m in net debt (180m debt - 60m cash). Its Enterprise value (EV) stands at SGD 299m. EV being simply market cap plus net debt (179m + 120m). Now, the enterprise value of the firm shouldn't change if the business is intact. So this means that as the firm generates cash annually to pay down its debt, eventually paying it to zero and attaining a net cash status as it has done so in the past, its EV should equate its market cap. This means that its market cap should jump from current SGD 179m to 299m ie up by 67% over time.

This is only possible if the firm keeps generating cash to pay down its debt. For OEL, well, it seems to work just perfectly alright. The firm is capable of generating SGD 20-25m of free cash flow per year, in fact, in the cheatsheet, it's even higher at 26m. This translates to an incredible 14.6% FCF yield, something as safe as a school rarely trades so cheaply. Even if we assume a more conservative number, say it can only do SGD 15m, it still translates to a decent 8.4% FCF yield and bearing in mind that it would use this 15m to pay down its debt means its market cap would grow by the same quantum per year ie 15m or 8.4% of 179m.

To sum this up, in a pretty bad scenario where things simply remain the same, OEL grows at a high single digit clip. If our thesis is right ie enrolment comes back, on top of the regular tuition fee increases, OEL is on its way to see its previous peak $1.02 (2.5x vs current price) and meanwhile we also get 4% dividend every year while it grows multifolds!

Disclaimer: this author owns OEL!

Monday, March 14, 2016

Overseas Education Ltd - Part 1

Part 2 is out!

Overseas Education Ltd (Bloomberg Ticker: OEL SP) is an intriguing small cap stock in Singapore listed in 2013 that almost doubled but then crashed spectacularly in the last 1.5 years. It now trades at 12% free cashflow yield, 11x PE and pays a 4% dividend (likely to be more going forward) and earnings are stable and growing barring Singapore's demise (i.e. our beloved little red dot one day becoming irrelevant).



For the uninitiated, OEL operates the largest independent international school in Singapore called Overseas Family School (OFS) providing expatriate kids with quality international education. It started in 1991 and currently has enrolment of 3,000 students. It is the third largest international school in Singapore after the Singapore American School (SAS) and the United World College (UWC). However, as it has no affiliation to any nationality, it is also the school with the most diversity in the world, boasting a record of educating kids from over 70 countries in our little red dot.

Well then, why did the stock collapse in the first place?

This was largely caused by its move from the prime downtown Orchard campus to Pasir Ris in 2015. It lost 20% of its enrolment and together with anxiety in the stock market since the start of 2016, OEL found no buyers for its stock. It is also likely that some large foreigner shareholders could be selling to get out of their positions which put further pressure on the stock price. Now, to me, this looks like the perfect scenario when value investors should pounce and buy when others are fearful and wait for the stock to go 2x (or even 3x) in a few years.

Well, let's not get too excited. To be fair, the bear story has a few valid points:

1. Losing the Orchard location was devastating, it lost 600-800 students with some in their early years which meant a lot of lost future income. But this is now all factored in the price.

2. Singapore has seen a huge increase in international schools and competition is intense. Last count there were over 70 international schools albeit some are quite small. There is now no longer any waiting list even at the top schools, this meant that Overseas Family School is facing a lot more competition.

3. The weakness in the global economy has translated to a lot of expats losing jobs in Singapore, which exacerbated the decline in enrolment numbers that we saw. These jobs include functions in the oil and gas industry, finance and managerial positions that might not be replaced soon. This meant less expats and their families staying in Singapore for the next few years.

We shall come back to these points later. First let's examine the bull case:

Education is one of the most fantastic businesses because the schools have a lot of pricing power. Parents are not about to be stingy when it comes to their children's education. They will pay an arm and a leg for good quality education especially if the school is "branded". Brand is very important and once built, its reputation lasts for decades (think Oxford, Harvard, Qinghua and in Singapore, Raffles and Hwa Chong) which meant that competition is actually largely irrelevant. Costs are relatively stable (teachers and depreciation essentially) and easily managed and offset by rising school fees which meant that marginal profitability is very high once the fixed cost is covered. 

OFS has been slowing building its brand name in Singapore for twenty over years albeit it has always been outshined by the Singapore American School, UWC, Tanglin Trust, Canadian and some others with affiliations to their home countries. Over time, however, it should slowly build stronger reputation given its dedication in hiring the best teachers and its sheer size and outreach in Singapore. It is well-known in the global recruitment of overseas teachers as one of the best employers globally. Hence its should have the ability to grow and retain its talent pool of teachers and continue to build its brand power.

Anecdotally, expat mums also like to share that their kids enjoy and learn a lot in the school and would not want to be transferred to some of the other top brands despite the school's low key profile. As a result of its diligence in hiring good teachers, emphasizing quality and good management of its strong executive team, it's enrolment had grown steadily from 200 students in its second year of operation to over 3,000 students today as shown in the chart below until 2013 (when enrolment peaked at 3,600 students). 

Overseas Family School Enrolment

OFS' test results have also improved over the years as a natural consequence of its focus on providing good holistic education. It has gradually nurtured more and more students getting more than 40 points out of the full marks of 45 in the globally recognized International Baccalaureate (IB) test. While it still has some distance from the three Singapore schools offering IB to Singaporean students (with c.25-50% of students getting 40 points or more), its test results are remarkable considering it does not have the advantage of nurturing most of its students for more than a few years since expats move around a lot to different global cities all the time.

Hence while OFS had seen a dramatic decline in enrolment as a result of its move to Pasir Ris, it should continue to grow as long as Singapore remains relevant economically and can attract global expats to live and work here. OFS should see net enrollment growing by 150-200 students or so which mean that it should take just 3-4 years for it to recover its enrolment to the 2013 level. From there the school could grow to fill up its campus capacity of more than 4,000 students at its new location over time.

One important point is this: even if enrolment growth is slower than expected, education, especially international school education, is a business that would see 5-6% price increase annually. This means that its FCF of S$20m currently should be the bottom because even without increasing enrolment, one should expect a base case scenario of its FCF growing 5-6% on school fees increase alone. Obviously there is quite a good likelihood that Singapore remains a magnet for expats, i.e. the number of students would increase by 5-7% per year (150-200 out of 3,000) and FCF explodes to S$30-40m by growing 10-15% over the next few years. At S$170m market cap today, this stock is a steal!

Next post, we look into more details surrounding its financials and the risks.

Disclaimer: The author of this post owns OEL!

Tuesday, March 01, 2016

Negative interest rates, skyrocketing asset prices!

This is a continuation of the previous post.

Inflation had always been around, so the nominal zero that we saw was never really zero. Inflation of 3% meant that money depreciated value 3% every year, we just didn't see it so we think it's not there. When inflation is 3% and interest rate is 2%, effectively money in the bank is still being burnt. After the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), nominal interest rate became zero, but inflation was around 1% and hence real rate was already negative. But unfortunately our primitive human minds can only think in nominal terms, not real terms. Hence in the long history of financial markets, nominal interest rate  (ie the one that we have been talking all this while, which is the one always quoted on TV and news) didn't need to go subzero since inflation was always positive.

But now that inflation is negative, things are really different, and actually also dangerous. It might make sense for interest rate to go negative. In real terms, we will still be fine though. In negative inflation or deflation, money now appreciates in value, so negative interest rates serve to stop that appreciation which is not normal and actually harmful.

Banana money issued in Singapore during WWII

You see, deflation is a silent killer. It is not as dramatic as hyperinflation when money becomes worthless like how Singapore's own history with banana money showed (pic above). Banana money notes worth $10 might be just $5 a few months later and then dropped to $3 after a year or two. By the end of the war it was not even justified to be used as toilet paper. There was a famous anecdote told by our late founding father Mr Lee Kuan Yew that when he received his salary in banana money, he simply bought anything he could because the money would be worth much less very quickly. So he quickly bought stuff like a billiard table, machines and what not even when he had not much use for them. It turned out to be an important strategy.

When the next global financial crisis hits, it might be worthwhile to learn this because fiat currency and investment assets could become worthless as the global financial system comes to a halt. It would be vital to own hard assets that are useful for sustaining life: land, livestocks, electric vehicle, solar panel and power generator etc. Well, that's story for another day.

The topic of the day is not inflation but deflation.

Deflation, as alluded to in the previous post, causes a different set of problems. First prices to decline, that's by definition. This procrastinates consumption, slows innovation and brings economic growth to a standstill, which exacerbates further price declines. It creates a vicious cycle and leaves the economy in stagnation. It's a slow death process that could trap an economy indefinitely. Again, we have go back to the Ant-Man analogy. It really feels pretty much like being trapped in the subatomic quantum realm.

Quantum realm, or rather, the black hole from Interstellar

Economic theory tells us that interest rate is the key lever to pull to regulate the economy. Inflation is one of the results that we see, the others being employment and growth. In an economy that is growing well, inflation is usually at around 2%. Interest rates could be around 2-3% to be moved up and down accordingly. If the economy is weak, interest rate should be lowered to stimulate growth and vice versa to prevent overheating. However, conventional wisdom put a limit on this powerful interest rate lever. Interest rate cannot go below zero. When the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) happened, interest rates were lowered to zero. But it wasn't enough. Now that China is at the risk of imploding, coupled with the world slowing drastically, the global central bankers are at their wits end.

Drastic times calls for drastic measures. In order to stimulate the global economy which is not growing and having negative inflation, a few countries started with negative interest rates. If zero interest rate is not enough to get people to borrow money, then we pay them to borrow money! In theory, this should work if it's not prolonged. People would wake up, work harder, come up with ideas, create new businesses which would require capital, borrow money, increase consumption, innovate and in no time, the economy is up and running again.

Unfortunately, reality works differently.

If money being deposited into the bank costs money rather than earning interest and if lending to people means I have to pay the borrowers instead of them paying me, then I better do something else with my money. What will happen is asset inflation. For quality assets, it would be massive asset inflation, perhaps even hyper inflation. The most accessible hard asset for most people is property. So negative interest rates also mean that property prices will skyrocket. This has important implications for Singapore's property market.

Stylized chart of Singapore Property Price vs Value

The chart above shows how Singapore property price and value had move over the past 10 years. Essentially prices nearly doubled from 2005 to 2008 but collapsed as a result of the GFC but went on to more than double, peaking at 220% of 2005 prices in 2013. The red line shows my estimation of the true value of Singapore's property. Recall that in value investing doctrine, we buy when price is less than value. Unfortunately, this only happened once in the last 10 years for Singapore property. This was in 2009 when the blue line i.e. price dipped below my estimation of value which is the red line. Well, we might get a chance in 2016 and 2017 if the world hadn't gone into negative interest rates.

In the following chart we try to understand what happens to value and ultimately price in the negative interest rate environment or NIRE. This has nothing to do with basketball shoes. Here we show prices in blue (price) and red (value) again, essentially the same data points from the previous chart but we also added a purple line.


Stylized chart of Singapore Property Price vs Value in NIRE

In the red value curve, I assumed that Singapore property value grew at 4-10% over the past 10 years. (4% growth during the lean years and 10% for the boom years) and should grow around 4% until 2020. Singapore is a mature economy and hence growth at 4% would roughly mirror GDP growth which is fair. This is just simple compounding at work and we see that in 2020, Singapore property value should be around 2.5x of what it was in 2005. In the graph, it reads about 250 on the y-axis. This means that if property prices remain where it is today until 2020, value gets to be higher than price and we would be able to buy Singapore property soon!

Alas, with the reality of NIRE hitting us (NIRE again stands for negative interest rate environment and has nothing to do with basketball shoes), what is likely to happen is that global money will start chasing high quality assets as discussed in the first half of this article. Singapore property is at the forefront of high quality assets. Global rich started buying Singapore around 2005 which caused prices to skyrocket as we had seen. Billionaires from all over the world starting to buy up bungalows. District 9, 10, 11 properties are already used for money parking of rich Chinese, Indians and Indonesians. This is going to further exacerbate.

This is depicted in the purple line in the same chart. While the red line shows a pedestrian growth in value mirroring GDP growth, negative interest rates know no bounds. We know that property value doubles when rental yield drops by half. Now that yield can go negative, it could only mean value can only skyrocket! In the chart, I arbitrary computed that value could shoot up to 600 by 2020 (vs only 250 for the red line).

To put this into better context, let's use some real numbers. In the past, say a good property in a good location (i.e. District 9, 10, 11) have provide a monthly rental income of S$4,000. This comes up to around S$40,000 a year after subtracting the peripheral costs. A property, valued at 4% rental yield means that its value should be S$1,000,000. As global interest rates fell, some of these good properties are being valued at 2% rental yield, which mean S$2,000,000, which is roughly what it is today.  This was more or less what happened with the Singapore property market over the past decade. Then the government stepped in to cool it down, some rationality prevailed and prices finally started falling in 2014 and 2015.

With negative interest rates, it means that money being put in the bank would lose value. The banks will be charging 1% for funds park there. These rich people having 10 million dollars in the bank will not be happy paying that bank $100,000 every year. They will be happy to buy Singapore property at 1% yield or even 0.5% yield. At 1% yield means the same property we talked about is worth S$4,000,000 and at 0.5% it is worth S$8,000,000. We may see Sky Habitat selling at $3,000 psf some day. This is the reality facing us.

Can this prediction be wrong? Of course, and actually it shouldn't be viewed as a prediction.

Nothing is ever cast in stone. The future is always a set of probabilities ascribed to a few scenarios. This could be one future reality. Its probability of actually happening gets higher if more central banks adopt negative interest rates. The big swing factor being the US Fed. There is always the alternative reality that the world finds its growth trajectory again, we move away from NIRE *Phew* and we get one chance to achieve the Singapore 5C dream again!

Let's hope that's the future waiting for us.